Bulk density of soil test procedure

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4. Bulk Density Test The bulk density measurement should be performed at the soil surface and/or in a compacted zone (plow pan, etc.) if one is present . Measure bulk density near (between 1 and 2 feet) the site of the respiration and infiltration tests. To get a more representative bulk density measurement of the area, additional samples may. Bulk Density of a Soil Core 2 PROCEDURE 1. Expose approximately 300 mm square of the soil layer to be tested. Place the steel dolly on top of the cutter and hammer the latter into the soil layer until the top edge of the cutter is a few millimetres below the soil surface. Take care not to rock the core cutter. Repea

1. The clod method usually gives higher bulk density values than do other methods. One reason is that the clod method does not take the inter-clod spaces into account. A second reason is that the soil volume is the air-dry volume, which is likely to be slightly less than the volume of a field-moist sample used in other methods. 2 Sand Cone Density is an accurate and reliable test method that has long been used to measure the in-place density of soils. The procedure is described in ASTM D1556 / AASHTO T 191 Calculate the bulk density and porosity of the sample, based on the formulas presented in the Background section.. PART TWO: Particle Density Particle density (as well as bulk density) of a sand can be easily approximated in the laboratory by the following procedure. 1. Weigh 50 g of dry sand and use a funnel to quantitatively transfe

density, shape, or volume. Bulk density can also be estimated from field measurements using a nuclear density gauge (see SOP 61) or measured with a sand cone (see SOP 65) or sand replacement (see SOP 70) test. Bulk density measurements of the same material with all three methods will not necessarily yield the same results because each metho 1.1.1 Method A (Water Displacement)— A specimen is coated in wax and then placed in water to measure the volume by determining the quantity of water displaced. The density and unit weight are then calculated based on the mass and volume measurements. Do not use this method if the specimen is susceptible to surface wax intrusion Excavation techniques are most commonly used to evaluate the bulk density of forest soils, but have major limitations as they cannot be used in soils with large pores and their measurement accuracy..

cylindrical metal measure used for bulk density and void test of aggregate Sample Preparation. Take the required amount of test sample form the bulk sample using any sample reduction method.; The test is normally carried out on dry material, but when bulking tests are required, material with a given percentage of moisture may be used Standard Test Method for Bulk Specific Gravity and Density of Compacted Bituminous Mixtures Using Coated Samples.. 131 . ASTM D 2950-14 Density of Soil In-Place by the Sand-Cone Method.. 179 . SEQUENTIAL TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) MANUAL OF TEST PROCEDURES FOR MATERIALS. Bulk density = Oven dry soil weight / volume of soil solids and pores Bulk density of mineral soils commonly ranges from 1.1 to 1.5 g/cm 3 in surface horizons. It increases with depth and tends to be high in sands and compacted pan horizons, and tends to be low in soils with abundant organic matter

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  1. ND T 166 Bulk Specific Gravity of Compacted Asphalt Mixtures Using Saturated . Equivalent Test . ND T 191 Density of Soil In-Place by the Sand-Cone Method . The AASHTO standard test procedure reports the percentage of material fine
  2. e the in-place density of compacted soils used in construction of structural fill, highway embankments, or earth dams. When the in-place density is to be used as a basis for acceptance, the drive cylinder volumes must be as large as practical and not less than 850 cm 3 (0.030 ft 3)
  3. g and less convenient under ï¬eld conditions compared with the volume replacement method
  4. ing the moisture content of the soil the dry density of the fill can be calculated and hence the voids percentage. A high percentage of voids indicates poor compaction of soil. A cylindrical core cutter is a seamless steel tube
  5. 1. Before actual data collection and lab procedure, students should get their experimental design approved by the teacher. This ensures that students are on the right track and are going to carry out an experiment that is testing what they are interested in; in this case it is soil density
  6. The bulk density is the ratio of mass of moist soil to the volume of the soil sample, and the dry density is the ratio of the mass of the dry soil to the volume the soil sample. Standard Reference: ASTM D 2937-00 - Standard Test for Density of Soil in Place by the Drive-Cylinder Method. Significance

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in place soil, the density tests must be performed in the field on compacted soil. There are several methods for determining the density of soil in place, i.e., Sand Replacement Method, Core Cutter Method. However, here we will discuss Core Cutter Method of Determining Field Density. Care Cutter method of determining field density Determine the bulk weight of soil; The weight of the soil excavated from the hole i.e. secured in the metal plate is then weighed. W10 = bulk weight of the excavated soil = 1896.5 gm. Calculate the in-situ bulk density of soil; Bulk density of the soil ρb= bulk weight of soil W10 / Volume of hole Vh = 1.8965 gm / 9.8 x 10-4 m 3 = 1934.6 kg / m Generally, the bulk density of mineral soils range from 1.0 to 1.8 g/cm3. The method you choose for a soil bulk density determination depends on the site characteristics. Two commonly used methods are: (1) the core method (2) the excavation method

ANULAB Density of Soil In situ by Core Cutting Method as

Department of Sustainable Natural Resources SOIL SURVEY STANDARD TEST METHOD BULK DENSITY OF A SOIL: CLOD METHOD ABBREVIATED NAME BD TEST NUMBER P14 TEST METHOD TYPE B VERSION NUMBER 1 SCOPE The bulk density of clods, or coarse peds, is calculated from their mass and volume Tests for bulk density and moisture content must be carried out at regular intervals if proper control of the compaction is to be achieved. American practice, now widely used in the UK, is to take at least four density tests per 8 hour shift with a minimum of one test for each 400 m3 of earthwork compacted. Fig. 11.6 Core cutter for clay soil Sample rings of 100‐cm 3 volume (53‐mm diameter by 51‐mm height; Eijkelkamp) were used as the reference method (REF) because this follows 14 and is the common sample ring size in German soil surveys. In addition, small sample rings of 5‐cm 3 volume (MINI; 18‐mm diameter by 20‐mm height, custom‐made product), and large sample rings of 250‐cm 3 volume (BIG; 84‐mm diameter by 50.

Using a soil ring, this video explains how to conduct the soil bulk density test For example, students take three soil samples for bulk density and soil particle density for each horizon at the soil pit at their Land Cover Sample Site. After performing the Bulk Density and Soil Particle Density protocols, they determine: Bulk Density: Mass of dry soil = 395 g Total soil volume = 300 cm3 Bulk density (mass of dry soil/total soil This test method is used to determine the bulk density of the given fine grained specimen. During the concrete mix design, when the aggregate is to be batched by volume or by weight, then it becomes necessary to know the mass of the aggregates that will fill the container of unit volume

The soil bulk density (BD), also known as dry bulk density, is the weight of dry soil (M solids) divided by the total soil volume (V soil). The total soil volume is the combined volume of solids and pores which may contain air (V air) or water (V water), or both (figure 1) Further information: Soil § Density The bulk density of soil depends greatly on the mineral make up of soil and the degree of compaction. The density of quartz is around 2.65 g/cm³ but the (dry) bulk density of a mineral soil is normally about half that density, between 1.0 and 1.6 g/cm³

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Test Procedure for Sand and Gravel (Loss-by-Washing of 15 Percent or Less) 59 e. Test Procedure for Cohesive Soil (Half Sample [10 gram or 13 gram], the density of water is 62.4 pounds per cubic foot. In soil testing, density is used to determine the degree of compaction by comparing the In-Place Density to the Maximum Density. The degree. Part XXXIII Determination of the density in-place by the ring and water replacement method Part XXXIV Determination of density of soil in-place by the rubber-baloonmethod 0.1.1 This standard was first published in 1966. In this revision, the test has been made applicable to soil 90 percent of which passes the 4'75-mm IS Sieve

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The Proctor compaction test is a laboratory method of experimentally determining the optimal moisture content at which a given soil type will become most dense and achieve its maximum dry density.The test is named in honor of Ralph Roscoe Proctor [], who in 1933 showed that the dry density of a soil for a given compactive effort depends on the amount of water the soil contains during soil. Like other methods described here, core cutter method of field density test is used to determine the in-situ density and compaction of soil embankment or subgrade. Why Core Cutter method is used in Civil Engineer? In order to evaluate the compaction of soil we have achieved at site; we have to compare it with MDD

Objectives of Core Cutter Method. The primary objective of the core cutter method is to determine the dry density of soil. It is used as a control test to check if the soil has acquired the designated dry density or not. The determined in situ dry density is necessary for the design of pavement and highway. Apparatus Required. 1 Soil bulk density (g / cm3) is mass of soil solids (oven-dry) per unit of volume of soil. data you need for bulk density. III Procedures A Particle Density 1. Weigh a picnometer flask with glass stopper and record mass (Table 1). 2. Fill the flask about half full with air-dry soil. Weigh the flask, stopper and soil

Field density test of soil is conducted in the field to know whether the specified compaction is achieved or not.And main Objective of test is to determine the in situ density of natural or compacted soils using sand pouring cylinders.. The in situ density of natural soil is needed for the determination of bearing capacity of soils, for the purpose of stability analysis of slopes, for the. Bulking of sand is nothing but the looseness of soil without compacting. Basically, water reduces the pores in the sand and compacts the soil. The difference between the volume of loose soil to saturated soil is known as bulking of sand. During concreting process, we continually give vibrate concrete to reduce the pores Usually, two types of test are performed: 1. The Standard Proctor test and 2. The Modified Proctor tests. In the Standard Proctor Test, the soil is compacted by a 2.6 kg rammer falling at a distance of 310 mm into a soil filled mould. The mould is filled with three layers of soil and each layer is subjected to 25 blows of rammer Reading time: 1 minuteBulk density of concrete is the mass of freshly mixed concrete required to fill the container of a unit volume. Bulk density of concrete reflects the ability of concrete to function for structural support, water and solute movement, and durability. This method helps to calculate the yield of concrete per cubic meter. Contents:Procedure for Bulk [ These are: 1) Section 3: Apparatus 2) Section 4: Cone Correction and Bulk Density Factors 3) Section 5: Procedure The following references are required to be reviewed for this chapter: Standard Specifications 1) Section 203.24(b) AASHTO 1) T 191 - Density of Soil In-Place by the Sand-Cone Method 2) T 224 - Correction for Coarse Particles in the.

Soil Bulk Density Problems and Relationship to Soil Function High bulk density is an indicator of low soil porosity and soil compaction. igh bulk density impacts H available water capacity, root growth, and movement of air and water through soil. Compaction increases bulk density and reduces crop yields and vegetative cover available t The weight of the soil(W) in the cutter is measured. The bulk density of soil t is calculated from the relation t =W/V, where V is the volume of the cutter. The water content(w) of excavated soil is determined in the laboratory. The dry density of soil d is calculated from the relation. d = t /(1+w

A density test is a type of materials test to determine the density of compacted soil, rock, or other materials, either in the field or in a lab setting. This is important for activities like building roadways, embankments, and berms, where a particular density is required for safety The general test procedure for determining the dry density of soil by the sand replacement method is relatively simple and easy to conduct. The test can be carried out using a small or large cylinder. Commonly, it is conducted using a large cylinder. The sand replacement test is mostly carried out either at the ground level or the formation level

To: All Holders of the Manual of Field Test Procedures . Section: Test Procedure AASHTO T 22. The Oregon Department of Transportation has specified method(s) for this Test Procedure. Please observe the following for our projects: • The use of unbonded caps as defined by ASTM C1231/C1231M-15, fo The method may be divided into four stages: obtaining a sample of soil from a specified depth, transportation to the laboratory, weighing and drying the soil, and calculation of the results. This chapter presents a list of equipment that is required to take soil samples of known volume from a given depth in the soil

Soil Density Testing: 3 Test Methods You Can Count On

5 Test procedure The bulk density of a soil is useful in the determination of the in situ overburden stress as a function of depth. If required, the dry density of a specimen may be calculated from the bulk density and the water content, if known In view of the inconsistency in soil bulk density results produced by different techniques, the objective of this study was to compare the soil core sampling method (core) and the CPN MC-3 elite nuclear gauge method (radiation) for measuring bulk density (ρ B) and volumetric moisture content (θ v) in a clay loam soil. 2. Materials and Methods. Standard test method for density and unit weight of soil in place by sand-cone method ASTM D2167, ratio of the oven-dry mass of the solids to the volume of the soil Note 1 to entry: The bulk volume includes the volume of the solids and of the pore space The moisture content is likely to vary from time and hence the field density also. So it is required to report the test result in terms of dry density. The relationship that can be established between the dry density with known moisture content is as follows: PROCEDURE Calibration of the Cylinder. 1

ASTM D7263 - 21 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory

Date: February 23, 2021 The bulk density of soil can be measured using the core method. Bulk density is a physical property of a granular solid, such as soil, sand, or powder. It is calculated by dividing the weight of a given volume of the material by the volume it occupies One method for determining bulk density is the core method. A (relatively) undisturbed, cylindrical soil core is collected using a device like the one shown in Figure 8.1. The driving weight is raised and dropped repeatedly to drive the sampler into the soil The bulk density of the sand is determined by dividing the mass of sand in the calibrating cylinder with the volume of the calibrating cylinder. Determine the dry density of the soil under sample:-Prepare the area of the embankment subject to test, level the top of the soil using the scraper tool Bulk density of aggregates is the mass of aggregates required to fill the container of a unit volume after aggregates are batched based on volume. Here is a method of determining the loose and rodded bulk density of aggregates. Test Standard : IS 2386-Part 3: 1963. Test Apparatus loose and rodded bulk density of aggregates : Weighing Balance

(PDF) Soil Bulk Density Estimation Methods: A Revie

How to Test Aggregate for Bulk Density and Voids

Introduction. Bulk density apparatus is testing equipment used to measure the bulk density property of powder, granules and other divided solids, especially used in reference to mineral components (soil, gravel, sand), chemical substances, (pharmaceutical), plastics like polyethylene (hdpe or mdpe) pvc, polystyrene etc, or foodstuff and any other masses of granular or particulate matter vessel as described in Method C for measuring the bulk density. Repeat the procedure using 400 taps. If the difference between the two masses obtained after 200 and 400 taps exceeds 2%, carry out a test using 200 additional taps until the difference between succeeding measurements is less than 2% ISO 17892-2:2014 is applicable to the laboratory determination of the bulk density of soil within the scope of geotechnical investigations. The linear measurement method is suitable for the determination of the bulk density of a specimen of soil of regular shape, including specimens prepared for other tests

Standard Proctor Test - its 5 [Procedure Steps & Tips]

Bulk Density and Particle Density La

  1. ation in situ of the density of natural or compacted soil containing coarse- grained particles which make the test described in 2.1 difficult to perform. It is an alternative to that test for fine- and medium-grained soils and should be used instead of that test for layers exceeding 150 mm, but not exceeding 250.
  2. 2) Section 4: Cone Correction and Bulk Density Factors 3) Section 5: Procedure The following references are required to be reviewed for this chapter: Standard Specifications 1) Section 203.24(b) AASHTO 1) T 191 - Density of Soil In-Place by the Sand-Cone Method 2) T 224 - Correction for Coarse Particles in the Soil Compaction Test
  3. ing soil bulk density (core, clod, and excavation) using three sample sizes on two alluvial soils characterized by crystalline
  4. Bulk specific gravity Specific gravity of solids Henry's coefficient of solubility (or dry density) of soil Wet unit weight (or wet density) of soil Unit weight of water Axial strain the apparatus,the testing procedures,and good laboratory technique in.
  5. Humboldt provides a complete line of soil testing products for field applications. These items include nuclear gauges and the electrical density gauge for soil compaction. Humboldt also provides plate load testers, shelby tubes, lightweight deflectometers and a large offering of penetrometers for all applications
  6. ation 1 (4) LABORATORY TEST METHOD FOR BULK DENSITY AND MAXIMUM BULK DENSITY DETERMINATION OF RACING SURFACE SOIL MATERIALS USING A SMALL MOLD (Diaz-Zorita 2001, ASTM D698) Note: This procedure applies to dirt only. All material must be completely free from wax and other synthetic materials
  7. Bulk Density is a measurement of themass of bulk rootzone material per unit volume. Bulk density results can be an indication of excess compac-tion or loose or unstable soil. Most turf systems will have a bulk density between 1.3 and 1.6 grams/cubic centimeter. Higher values may indicate the turf system is too hard, and lowe

ASTM D2937 - 17e2 Standard Test Method for Density of Soil


Soil Bulk Density Estimation Methods: A Revie

  1. PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a method for measuring the bulk density of a soil material capable of accurately measuring the bulk density of a soil material such as bentonite material at a construction site. A specimen 21 is cut out from a water-stopping layer 3 made of a compacted bentonite material, and the weight is measured
  2. The aim of the test is to establish the maximum dry density that may be attained for a given soil with a standard amount of compactive effort. When a series of samples of a soil are compacted at different water content the plot usually shows a distinct peak. The maximum dry density occurs at an optimum water conten
  3. ed for our sample Property Value Particle density 2.65gcm- 3 Bulk density 1.2gcm- 3 Total porosity 55% Water filled porosity 68% Gravimetric water content 0.312g Volumetric water content 0.374g The above result shows that the particle density of 2.65g/cm3 indicated that the sample is a.
  4. e the in-situ density of fine-grained natural or compacted soils free from aggregates using a core cutter

Dry Density of Soil by Core Cutter Method for Soil Compactio

This test method covers the determination of bulk density (unit weight) of aggregate in a compacted or loose condition, and calculated voids between particles in fine, coarse, or mixed aggregates based on the same determination. This test method is applicable to aggregates not exceeding 125 mm [5 in.] in nominal maximum size By measuring the amount of scattering or absorption of radiation by the soil from a gamma source in an access tube in the soil, the bulk density of the soil may be estimated

Determining Bulk Density of Different Soil Samples and

1986). Bulk density values are also used as a measure of soil qual-ity, indicating the ease of root penetration, water movement, and soil strength (Grossman and Reinsch, 2002). One commonly used procedure for determining bulk density is the clod method. This method is especially useful for soils contain The plaster cast method for determining bulk density is an excavation method that uses dental plaster to form a cast of the excavation volume. Bulk density measurements using the plaster cast method were compared against measurements using the clod and core methods. Results from the plaster cast method were not significantly different (P< 0.05) from the clod and core methods for coarse. where W s is the mass of dry soil in the maximum density test in g, V s is the volume of soil in the maximum density test in cm 3 given by - V s = V c - [A×(D i - D f )] (4.86) where A is the cross-sectional area of the mold in cm 2, D i is the average initial dial reading in cm, and D f is the average final dial reading in cm. iii. A sample weighing about 30kg and passing through the 37.5mm IS Sieve is used for the test. Soil is compacted in five layers, each layer being given 55 blows of the 4.9kg rammer. The rest of the procedure is same as above. REPORTING OF RESULTS Bulk density Y(gamma) in g/cc of each compacted specimen should be calculated from the equation This test method describes the procedure used to determine the relative compaction of untreated and treated soils and aggregates. Relative compaction in this method is defined as the ratio of the in-place, wet density of a soil or aggregate to the test maximum wet density of the same soil or aggregate when compacted by a specific test method

Determination of Dry Density of Soil by Core Cutter MethodUse of PVC pipes to determine bulk density for irrigation

How to Determine Unit Weight or Density of Soil

the theory behind the test. The triaxial test procedures have been developed from those which are described in Soil Testing for Engineers by T. W. Lambe and The Measurement of Soil Properties in the Triaxial Test by A. W. Bishop and D. J. Henkel. The consolidation test procedures have been developed from those in Lambe's book Find the wet bulk density of a soil sample which has solid mass of 375 kg and a water content of 15%, given that the volume of the sample is 0.75 m^3. Common Entrance Test (CET): Study Guide. • Examine the effect of soil management on soil structure, bulk density and soil water • Design sampling procedure for field soil testing Reading 4.5 Soil Density 4.6 Pore Space of Mineral Soils 4.7 Formation and Stabilization of Soil Aggregates 4.8 Tillage and Management of Soils 9.8 Raising the Soil pH by Limin of bulk density is necessary to determine nutrient content (including carbon) on an area basis (kg ha 1). This chapter presents a bulk density method for surface organic (LFH) and mineral horizons in forest soils. The determination of bulk density on mineral soils is based on the excavation and sand replacement method (Blake and Hartge 1986) This test method is often used to determine bulk density values that are necessary for use for many methods of selecting proportions for concrete mixtures. The bulk density also may be used for determining mass/volume relationships for conversions in purchase agreements. However, the relationship between degree of compaction of aggregates in a hauling unit or stockpile and that achieved in.

Determination of Field Density Test of Soil by Core Cutter

The approximate bulk density of sand that is commonly used in normal-weight concrete is between 1520-1680 kg/m 3 (95-105 lb/ft 3) [1] Here, Standard test method for determining the bulk density of sand is given in ASTM C 29 (AASHTO T 19). [2 4. Calibration method A . 4.1 Pack the soil into the calibration container at approximately the field bulk density. 4.1.1 If you start with dry soil, control the bulk density by packing a known mass of soil into a known container volume. 4.1.2 It is generally necessary to add the soil in layers, packing each layer before adding the next

Field Density Test Calculation - A step by Step Guide

General (IS 2386 2016 Part 3 Method of test for Aggregates for Concrete- Part- III Specific Gravity, Density, Voids Absorption and Bulking.) This method covers the procedure for determining unit weight or bulk density, Specific Gravity, Density, Voids, Absorption and Bulking of aggregate Loose bulk density = Net loose wt/Volume. Loose bulk density = 20.06 kg/15 L. Loose bulk density = 1.337 Kg/L. Test procedure for finding Rooded bulk density. 1) first we take clean empty cylindrical measurement unit capacity of 15 litre and weighted it on the weighing balance.take and note their weight in observation sheet

Soil Bulk Density - Soil Lab Module

  1. ation of bulk density consists of drying (105°C) and weighing a soil sample, the volume of which is known (core method) or must be deter
  2. ed by measuring the mass of dry soil per unit of volume (g/mL or g/cm3). The bulk density of soil depends on the structur
  3. The Soil Bulk Density Data Set contains bulk density of the soil based on dry weight at two depths, 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm. Samples were collected at 31 different locations within the FIFE study area during the growing season of 1987
(PDF) Development of a 3D scanner technique to measureDetermination of Field Density Test of Soil by Core CutterPPT - Soil Mechanics - II PowerPoint Presentation, free(PDF) The assessment of soil quality of various age of

CBR Test Procedure. Take the soil sample which passes through 20 mm IS sieve, but it should retain on 4.75 mm IS sieve. Take about 4.5 to 5.5 kg of the material and mix it with water content. Taken water content should be equal to the optimum water content which is found by light compaction or heavy compaction test. Bulk density. The Standard Penetration Test (SPT) is used to assess the density of a sandy soil. The test involves using a split barrel sampler which is driven into the soil at the bottom of a cased borehole. The SPT test procedure is detailed in BS 1377 Part 9 or ASTM D-1586. The number of blows to drive the sampler 300mm in to the soil is recorded Method 3 for measuring the bulk density. Repeat the procedure using 400 taps. If the difference between the 2 masses obtained after 200 and 400 taps exceeds 2 per cent, carry out a test using 200 additional taps until the difference between succeeding measurements is less than 2 per cent. Calculate the tappe

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